Prior Art Library

Porta Sophia is a 501(c)(3) non-profit created for patent reviewers around the world to help them find relevant prior art in the field of psychedelics.

The library provides convenient access, via a simple search tool, to scientific literature, previous patents, historical archives, online forums and more. Key content from the public domain focuses on medical applications, means of production, drug combinations and various drug formulations of multiple psychedelic compounds.

The mission of Porta Sophia is to protect innovation surrounding psychedelics as well as the patients who will someday benefit from their therapeutic use. 

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Our global search tool returns results from Porta Sophia and other relevant databases. The tool highlights compounds of interest in yellow, with supporting patent types and sub-themes highlighted in blue.

Try it out by typing "psilocybin depression".

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"'Bad Trips' May Be the BEST TRIPS"

Clark, Walter Houston


FATE Magazine (via The Psychedelic Library)

Walter Clark experience of Salvodor Roquet's highly unorthodox psychotherapy in Mexico. In a group setting, violence and fear was used to evoke a patient's inner demons.

"The walls were covered with bizarre pictures painted by former patients and likenesses of Freud, Gandhi and former Chilean President Salvador Allende. A crucifix hung on one wall."

"Shortly thereafter, the lights were turned down and a series of sound movies were shown. These were scenes of violence, death and crude pornography, apparently designed to shock and disturb the sensibilities of the average patient, although other scenes reflected natural beauty, love, tenderness and the like so that the whole sweep of human passion and experience was represented. In other parts of the room still pictures with similar themes were projected against the walls. As this variety show continued the music gradually rose in volume and cacophony. Patients could watch the scenes or not as they pleased but it was difficult to ignore the assault upon our ears. However, the staff prevented us from falling asleep."

"[T]he whole experience can best be described as a descent into hell."
After the rest period, the few unprocessed patients received attention. The staff distributed to each patient significant pictures from his file—usually family photographs, pictures of the patient himself at various ages or photos of friends and lovers."

"Statement of Eve Babitz," Narcotic Rehabilitation Act of 1966, 550.

Babitz, Eve


Congressional testimonial from Eve Babitz regarding the impact LSD had on her life as a debilitated hypochondriac.

"Before I took LSD for the first time, I was a hypochondriac. I was afraid to go to the doctor for a checkup because I was sure he would find something terribly wrong with me."
"I was such a hypochondriac that I developed all the symptoms of leukemia."

"After my first session with LSD I was never afraid of doctors again. I wasn’t even afraid of dying. […] I am much freer now, with all those fears gone. It is such a relief. I feel like I can really live now, enjoy things, get involved in my work."

Citation: Statement of Walter H. Bowart, Publisher, The East Village Other; Paula Sherwood, New York, N.Y.; and Eve Babitz, New York, N.Y., The Narcotic Rehabilitation Act of 1966, Hearings before a Special Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 89th Congress, 2nd Session, January 25-27, May 12, 13, 19, 23 and 25, June 14 and 15, July 19, 1966 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966), 550.

5-halo-tryptamine Derivatives Used As Ligands On The 5-ht6 And/or 5-ht7 Serotonin Receptors

Assunta, Di Cesare Maria; Patrizia, Minetti; Giorgio, Tarzia; Gilberto, Spadoni


5-halo-tryptamine derivatives for treating neurological disorders. Aimed at 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors.

" 1. A method of selectively interacting with the 5-HT-6 and/or 5-HT7 serotonin receptors comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I)
R1 and R2, the same or different, are H or C1–C6 linear or branched alkyl;
R3=C1–C6 linear or branched alkyl;
R4=halogen; and of the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof."

A Lesson in Bacteria

Hsiao, Elaine


TED Archive

Describes how microbiota changes are linked to a wide variety of disease states, including depression, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, IBS, and Parkinson's Disease.
"4:30 Microbiota and Brain Behavior.
8:00 Microbiota and Humans.
8:50 list of diseases known to be associated with changes in gut microbiota.

Listed conditions:
Allergy, anxiety, asthmas, atherosclerosis, autism, celiac disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, Crohn's disease, depression, dental cavities, dermatitis, diabetes, eczema, epilepsy, gastric ulcers, HIV infection, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, multiple sclerosis, necrotizing enterocolitis, obesity, Parkinson's Disease, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, ulcerative colitis.

Transcript, 8:34-8:58: "Now what's the point? So there are lots of different disorders and all of these have roots in different areas. Immune problems, GI problems, heart problems…but all of these disorders are also linked to changes in the microbiota. We know this now that if we profile individuals with disorders they have differences in the microbiota."

A Really Good Day: How Microdosing Made a Mega Difference in My Mood, My Marriage, and My Life

Waldman, Ayelet


The biographical account of how regular LSD microdosing sessions saved Ayelet Waldman's life.

"In an effort to treat a debilitating mood disorder, Ayelet Waldman undertook a very private experiment, ingesting 10 micrograms of LSD every three days for a month. This is the story--by turns revealing, courageous, fascinating and funny--of her quietly psychedelic spring, her quest to understand one of our most feared drugs, and her search for a really good day."

Amelioration of frozen gait by tandospirone, a serotonin 1A agonist, in a patient with pure akinesia developing resistance to L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine.

Miyata, S; Hamamura, T; Yoshinaga, J; Nakamura, Y; Imamura, T; Hikiji, A; Kuroda, S


Clinical Neuropharmacology

Reports co-administration of a serotonin (5-HT) 1A agonist with droxidopa (L-threo-DOPS)

An Investigation to Determine the Therapeutic Effectiveness of LSD-25 and Psilocybin on Hospitalized Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children

Fisher, Gary


Purdue University Archives and Special Collection, Gary Fisher papers

Twelve children (between 4-12 years of age) were given psilocybin, LSD, or both to treat severe emotional and mental illness. An anti-convulsant (dilantin) and a sedative (Librium) was administered before treatment.

"Pre-treatment medication of 10 mg. Librium; (b) 20-30 minutes later, 10 to 15 mg. of Psilocybin; (c) 20 minutes later, 250-300 gamma LSD. This medication regime has proved most successful to date. ([E]ach child is given three grains of dilantin the night before the treatment as we have had two experiences with seizures developing during treatment)."

Citation: MSP 84, File 7, Item 1, Fisher, Gary (et al). An Investigation to Determine the Therapeutic Effectiveness of LSD-25 and Psilocybin on Hospitalized Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children (typed manuscript), circa 1963, Box: 1, Folder: 8. Gary Fisher papers, MSP 84. Purdue University Archives and Special Collections. Accessed April 18, 2021.

Antecedents of mystical experience and dread in intensive meditation.

Russ, Suzanne L; Elliott, Melody S


Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice

Anecdotal support from population survey focused on elements of set and setting and their influence on the mystical experience and nature of the trip.

"This study utilized retrospective crowdsourced data based on a sample of 110 individuals who had participated in an intensive meditation experience of 3+ days in a retreat setting to understand factors that predict the occurrence of ME during at least 1 sit. The resulting statistical model predicted 50.3% of the variance in ME during meditation, and 25% of adverse experiences during meditation. The key predictor of ME was a state of surrender at the start of the experience, and the explanatory power of the model was enhanced by high values in the trait of absorption and low mental barriers. Conversely, preoccupation, distress, and high mental barriers predicted an experience of dread. Further, ME muted the impact of other predictors in producing positive emotional outcomes. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed."

Bromotryptamine and Bromotyramine Derivatives from the Tropical Southwestern Pacific Sponge Narrabeena nigra.

Miguel-Gordo, Maria; Gegunde, Sandra; Calabro, Kevin; Jennings, Laurence K; Alfonso, Amparo; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Vacelet, Jean; Botana, Luis M; Thomas, Olivier P


Marine Drugs

Isolation and extraction of 7 new brominated tryptamines from sea sponge Narrabeena nigra.

"We describe herein the isolation and structure elucidation of seven new bromotryptamine metabolites 1–7 and a new bromotyramine derivative 8 (Figure 1), along with 10 known brominated analogues: 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (9) [16,17], 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptamine (10) [18], 5,6-dibromotryptamine (11) [18], 6-bromo-N-methyltryptamine (12) [19], 6-bromotryptamine (13) [20,21], 6-bromokynuramine (14) [22], 7-bromoquinolin-4(1H)-one (15) [22], 3,5-dibromo-4-methoxytyramine (16) [23], 3-bromo-4-methoxy-N,N,N-trimethyltyrosine (17) [24], and 3-bromo-4-methoxytyramine (18), isolated for the first time as a natural product but widely used as a reactant in synthesis [23]. The biological activity of these alkaloids was assessed on two cellular models associated with neuroinflammation [25]."

CSD Entry: OKOKAD; single-crystal X-ray structure for psilocybin trihydrate

Arlin, Jean-Baptiste; Greenan, Catherine; Lorimer, Keith; Kaylo, Kristi; Kargbo, Robert; Meisenheimer, Poncho W.; Tarpley, Gary; Sherwood, Alexander


The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC)

The single-crystal X-ray structure for psilocybin trihydrate was solved.

"Space Group: P b c a (61), Cell: a 14.39061(16)Å b 8.26729(9)Å c 27.1581(3)Å, α 90° β 90° γ 90°"

Chronic LSD alters gene expression profiles in the mPFC relevant to schizophrenia.

Martin, David A; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, David E; Nichols, Charles D



Chronic LSD exposure has significant impact on gene expression for neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity processes.

"In this work we have characterized global mRNA changes that occur in the mPFC four weeks after discontinuation of chronic LSD administration. Extended exposure to LSD produces widespread and long-lasting abnormalities in gene expression that accompany persistent abnormal behaviors. Examination of altered genes using two different functional clustering techniques shows that neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity processes are among the most highly affected by chronic LSD."

Chronic, Intermittent Microdoses of the Psychedelic N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Produce Positive Effects on Mood and Anxiety in Rodents.

Cameron, Lindsay P; Benson, Charlie J; DeFelice, Brian C; Fiehn, Oliver; Olson, David E


ACS Chemical Neuroscience

DMT microdosing is effective in alleviating mood and anxiety disorders in mice. Male mice gained significant body weight during treatment.

"We found that chronic, intermittent, low doses of DMT produced an antidepressant-like phenotype and enhanced fear extinction learning without impacting working memory or social interaction. Additionally, male rats treated with DMT on this schedule gained a significant amount of body weight during the course of the study. Taken together, our results suggest that psychedelic microdosing may alleviate symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders, though the potential hazards of this practice warrant further investigation."